Pepsi Pavilion

Pepsi-Cola Pavilion in fog by Fujiko Nakaya, Osaka, Japan, 1970
Pepsi-Cola Pavilion in fog by Fujiko Nakaya, Osaka, Japan, 1970
© Photo: Shunk-Kender. Courtesy Klüver/Martin Archive

Twenty-five years after the end of World War II, the first World Expo in Japan was held in Osaka. With its experimental architecture and advanced technological projects, it was seen as a symbol of the country's post-war resurgence.

Fujiko Nakaya, representing E.A.T., participated in the Pepsi Pavilion with the world's first natural fog sculpture. The research for the project took about a year and required numerous tests in collaboration with physicists, meteorologists, aerodynamics specialists, and engineers. Together with cloud physicist Thomas Mee, Nakaya tested various methods to create a mass of fog from very fine water droplets that would be subject to the same physical laws of condensation as natural fog.

Fujiko Nakaya is considered the first artist to have mastered the technical and scientific complexity of creating natural fog from water. She applied for a patent in 1989 and continues to employ the same process to this day. Thomas Mee founded a company that uses the same water-based technology in agriculture and industry for cooling greenhouses, data centers, or gas turbines.